Here you can find the most common types of cancer

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women. The good news is that the most cases are curable if the cancer is discovered in time and the treatment is started immediately. The first step is the radiology imaging and biopsy. Depending on the histopathology result and radiology imaging, the treatment plan is provided by our oncologists together with the surgeon (if the case).

The treatments vary from hormonal therapy, chemo-, immune-, or targeted therapy until to breast surgery, breast reconstruction and radiotherapy in selected cases

The side effects during the chemo-immunotherapy are treated with special drugs

The treatments in Austria are often less stressful, have fewer side effects and vastly increase the quality of life for those who are treated.

The treatment options in case of breast cancer are:

In Austria, operations are always carried out with breast-conserving surgery if possible. In addition, axillary lymph nodes are removed to rule out an attack by cancer cells.

Medication therapy
Chemotherapy can be used before operations (to shrink tumours) or after operations (to prevent or eliminate metastases)

Hormone therapy should restrict cancer growth and can be used on a long-term basis

Immunotherapy blocks important biochemical signaling cascades and supports the immune system

Radiation therapy
Radiation is normally combined with an operation and/or chemotherapy. The goal is to destroy the tumour and/or any other tumour cells that are still in existence

Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer almost always starts from a long-standing infection with certain viruses. These human papillomaviruses (HPV) are mainly transmitted through sexual contact. In most cases, these infections heal by themselves and without consequences

Cervical cancer usually does not cause symptoms at the beginning. At first, there are often unspecified symptoms, such as unexplained weight loss or abdominal pain

Signs that may indicate cervical cancer include the following.

  • unusual bleeding, for example, outside of menstruation, after sexual intercourse, or after menopause;
  • menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days;
  • foul-smelling or flesh-water colored discharge from the vagina;
  • pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis;
  • pain during bowel movements or urination

If you notice any of these signs, you should see your gynecologist

The treatment options in case of cervical cancer are:

If the cancer has not yet spread to distant lymph nodes or organs, more than half of those affected can be cured. Then the experts recommend surgery or radiation chemotherapy.

The following surgical procedures may be considered:

Conization: cutting out part of the cervix. Trachelectomy: partial removal of the cervix. The procedure is only considered if the cancer is very small and the lymph nodes are not affected. Pregnancy is still possible. Hysterectomy: removal of the uterus. This procedure is recommended by experts when family planning is complete or when the cancer has already penetrated deeper into the tissue. This surgery can vary in extent depending on how far the cancer has spread.

In the case of advanced tumors or affected lymph nodes, the specialists recommend radiation chemotherapy. This is then often the better choice than extensive, stressful surgery

If a cure is unlikely, drugs (chemotherapy and antibody therapy) can temporarily suppress cancer growth

Colon cancer

Colon cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers. The good news is that because of improved early recognition and modern therapies this disease is much more treatable than it was in the past

The therapy depends on the type (histological findings) as well as the tumor growth and stage of the disease. Good collaboration between surgery, gastroenterology, oncology, radiology and radiation therapy is important for optimal therapy. Various treatment methods are available to colon cancer patients: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and treatment with targeted medications play an important role

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, both in men and women, worldwide

Recent innovations and progress in diagnosis, staging and therapy of early stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have changed the paradigm for treatment of lung cancer patients.
In early stage disease, primary radical resection – by using conventional or minimally invasive approaches – together with systematic lymph node dissection is the preferred approach to achieve curative treatment of patients

In locally advanced lung cancer, surgery is usually combined with preoperative cancer treatment such as chemo-, immune-, or targeted treatment and radiotherapy in selected cases. The introduction of immune- and targeted therapy has improved the outcome of systemically affected patients significantly

Gastric cancer

Cancer cells multiply uncontrollably, displacing healthy body tissue and spreading throughout the body. If the cancer originates from glands of the stomach mucosa, the technical term is gastric carcinoma. If stomach cancer spreads, metastases often settle in the liver, lymph nodes, lungs and peritoneum.

Detecting stomach cancer

Complaints that indicate stomach cancer are often ambiguous. Initially, there may be general digestive complaints such as bloating, regurgitation, less appetite, bad breath or abdominal pain. As the disease progresses, the symptoms may become more severe and new ones may be added. If the following signs occur, your doctor should arrange for a gastroscopy for clarification:

  • difficulty swallowing
  • frequent vomiting
  • severe loss of appetite
  • unwanted weight loss
  • bloody or black stools (tarry stools)
  • anemia due to iron deficiency

Gastroscopy can reliably detect stomach cancer: A flexible tube is inserted into the stomach via the esophagus. Tissue samples can also be taken and examined in the laboratory for cancer cells.

The treatment options in case of gastric cancer are:

If the cancer has not yet spread, a cure is possible. In this case, specialists recommend surgery: the stomach is partially or completely removed. If the cancer is at the entrance to the stomach, the lower part of the esophagus is also taken out.

In addition to surgery, chemotherapy alone or combined with radiation (radiochemotherapy) may be considered before and/or afterward. If the cancer is discovered early and is still very small, it may be possible to remove it via the esophagus using special instruments. The technical term for this gentle procedure is endoscopic resection.

If stomach cancer has spread throughout the body, it can no longer be cured. Experts then recommend drugs that temporarily stop the cancer growth. The aim of this treatment is to alleviate symptoms and prolong life. Research groups are currently testing new drugs, for example immunotherapy.


Hodgkin’s lymphoma

In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, certain white blood cells, the B-lymphocytes (B-cells), are altered. The body normally recognizes and destroys such altered cells. However, if cells can escape the body’s control mechanism, they divide unchecked. They then multiply faster than normal body cells and displace healthy body tissue. In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, these cells first multiply in the lymph nodes, which increase in size. Hodgkin lymphoma can spread throughout the body and affect other organs outside the lymphatic system.

Signs of Hodgkin lymphoma

In about 7 out of 10 people with Hodgkin lymphoma, the lymph nodes swell painlessly. They are often found on the neck or behind the breastbone (mediastinum), and sometimes in other parts of the body, such as the armpits, abdomen, or groin. The swollen lymph nodes are usually firm and feel „rubbery”. Enlarged lymph nodes behind the breastbone can cause a persistent irritating cough or shortness of breath for no apparent reason.

In about 4 out of 10 people affected, there may be other signs with no other explainable cause.
These includes:

  • fever above 38 °C;
  • night sweats, for example associated with a change of nightclothes; or associated with a change of nightclothes;
  • and unwanted weight loss of more than one-tenth of the body weight within body weight within six months.

This group of complaints or symptoms is also called B-symptoms by experts. However, they are not unique to Hodgkin’s lymphoma; they can also be observed in other diseases.

Reduced performance, itching and lymph node pain after alcohol consumption, the so-called alcohol pain, can also be further indications. If organs are already affected, further complaints may occur, for example abdominal pain or bone pain.

All these signs may indicate Hodgkin’s lymphoma, but they may also have other causes. If these complaints persist for more than two weeks, you should visit a doctor’s office.

Which Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatments are justify for you depends on the type and stage of your disease, your overall health, and your preferences. The goal of treatment is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible and bring the disease into remission.


Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill lymphoma cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel through your bloodstream and can reach nearly all areas of your body.

Chemotherapy is often combined with radiation therapy in people with early-stage classical type Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Radiation therapy is typically done after chemotherapy. In advanced Hodgkin’s lymphoma, chemotherapy may be used alone or combined with radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy drugs can be taken in pill form or through a vein in your arm, or sometimes both methods of administration are used. Several combinations of chemotherapy drugs are used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drugs you’re given. Common side effects are nausea and hair loss. Serious long-term complications can occur, such as heart damage, lung damage, fertility problems and other cancers, such as leukemia.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. For classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, radiation therapy is often used after chemotherapy. People with early-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma may undergo radiation therapy alone.

During radiation therapy, you lie on a table and a large machine moves around you, directing the energy beams to specific points on your body. Radiation can be aimed at affected lymph nodes and the nearby area of nodes where the disease might progress. The length of radiation treatment varies, depending on the stage of the disease. A typical treatment plan might have you going to the hospital or clinic five days a week for several weeks. At each visit, you undergo a 30-minute radiation treatment.

Radiation therapy can cause skin redness and hair loss at the site where the radiation is aimed. Many people experience fatigue during radiation therapy. More-serious risks include heart disease, stroke, thyroid problems, infertility and other cancers, such as breast or lung cancer.

Bone marrow transplant

Bone marrow transplant, also known as stem cell transplant, is a treatment to replace your diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells that help you grow new bone marrow. A bone marrow transplant may be an option if Hodgkin’s lymphoma returns despite treatment.

During a bone marrow transplant, your own blood stem cells are removed, frozen and stored for later use. Next you receive high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy to destroy cancerous cells in your body. Finally your stem cells are thawed and injected into your body through your veins. The stem cells help build healthy bone marrow.

People who undergo bone marrow transplant may be at increased risk of infection.

Other drug therapy

Other drugs used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma include targeted drugs that focus on specific vulnerabilities in your cancer cells and immunotherapy that works to activate your own immune system to kill the lymphoma cells. If other treatments haven’t helped or if your Hodgkin’s lymphoma returns, your lymphoma cells may be analyzed in a laboratory to look for genetic mutations. Your doctor may recommend treatment with a drug that targets the particular mutations present in your lymphoma cells.

Targeted therapy is an active area of cancer research. New targeted therapy drugs are being studied in clinical trials.

If you have questions about other types of cancer such as sarcomas (bone cancer), bladder cancer, skin cancer, liver cancer etc., you can send us your questions here about diagnosis and therapy. We will be glad to give you a detailed answer.

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